BREAST FEEDING PROMOTION IN PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Breast feeding promotion plays a significant role in the well being of nursing mother and their children. There have been so many benefits from breast feeding for nursing mothers and their child; for mothers the benefits include decreased risk of ovarian and breast cancers, potential reduced risk of postpartum depression, and potential contribution to weight loss (return to pre-pregnancy weight). Financial benefits for the family in the infant’s first year of life include savings up to $1500 in formula cost (Haroon et al., 2013). Decreased incidence of illness in the first year also contributes to significant cost savings to the family.
According to (Eidelman & Schanler, 2012; USDHHS-3, 2011) stated that the estimated cost savings in the U.S. if 90% of families exclusively breastfed for six months is 13 billion dollars related to health care costs.
Common barriers for mothers to initiate or continue breastfeeding include lack of experience or understanding, lack of support, including from family and employers, inadequate support with troubleshooting, lack of up-to-date information from health care providers, and hospital practices that fail to promote breastfeeding (Brown, Raynor, & Lee, 2011; USDHHS-1, 2011).
According to (Taveras et al., 2003) stated that provider support has shown to increase breastfeeding initiations and continuance rates. Primary care providers can improve breastfeeding rates through the implementation of several interventions including the following: time-specific education guidelines; presentation of breastfeeding as the rule or norm, not the exception in infant feeding; maintain up-to-date education and skills related to breastfeeding promotion; providing resources to support breastfeeding mothers; and creating follow-up protocols for the clinic to support women to start and continue breastfeeding (Eidelman & Schanler, 2012; USDHHS-4, 2011).
A systematic review of the literature completed by Haroon, Das, Salam, Imdad, & Bhutta (2013) showed that breastfeeding promotion interventions not only significantly increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding, but also decreased the rate of those not breastfeeding at all. The study in this regard wishes to carry out an examination of breast feeding promotion using the primary health center as the case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
What really instigated the study breast feeding promotion in primary health center was due to the increase in the rate of malnutrition among young children. Many women fail to initiate breastfeeding, while many others struggle to continue breastfeeding exclusively for six months of the infant’s life, or continue partial breastfeeding for 12 months or longer. The mothers and infants who fail at breastfeeding, for various reasons, fail to profit from health and economic benefits that last for decades (Eidelman & Schanler, 2012). Healthy People 2020 set a goal for 81.9% of mothers to initiate breastfeeding, 60.6% to be breastfeeding any amount at six months (25.5% exclusively), and 34.1% breastfeeding at one year. Current recommendations are for exclusive breastfeeding until six months, and then continued breastfeeding until 12 months. In the United States (US), the current data on the prevalence of breastfeeding shows only 74% of women initiate breastfeeding, only 43.5% are still breastfeeding at six months (only 14.1% exclusively), and 22.7% are breastfeeding at one year (USDHHS-1, 2011). In order to improve the health of our communities and our nation, breastfeeding needs to be a priority, and providers need to have the education and confidence to address breastfeeding with their patients. Most literature has been carried out on breast feeding but no research has been carried out on breast feeding promotion in health center in Nigeria.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine breast feeding promotion in primary health center. Other specific objectives of study include:
1. To determine the effect of breast feeding promotion on the knowledge attitude of nursing mother on the breast feeding
2. To examine the role of breast feeding promotion on the well being of children
3. To investigate on the factors affecting the promotion of breast feeding in primary health centers
4. To determine the relationship between media and primary health center in the promotion of breast feeding in Nigeria
5. To proffer solution to the above stated problems
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are stated below as follows:
1. What is the effect of breast feeding promotion on the knowledge attitude of nursing mother on the breast feeding?
2. What are the roles of breast feeding promotion on the well being of children?
3. What are the factors affecting the promotion of breast feeding in primary health centers?
4. What is the relationship between media and primary health center in the promotion of breast feeding in Nigeria?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant relationship between media and primary health center in the promotion of breast feeding in Nigeria
H1: There is significant relationship between media and primary health center in the promotion of breast feeding in Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on promotion of breast feeding in primary health center will be of immense benefit the ministry of health education, the primary health centers in Nigeria, the Nigerian societies, the nursing mothers and other researchers that wishes to carryout similar research on the above topic as the study will teach nursing mothers the benefit of breast feeding; the study will also trigger the campaign for the promotion of breast feeding by the federal government of Nigeria. Finally the study will educate the primary health center on the various strategies on breast feeding promotion.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on promotion of breast feeding is limitd to the primary health center alone in Nigeria; the study will cover the benefit of breast feeding, promotion of breast feeding by the federal government of Nigeria and the various strategies on breast feeding promotion
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Enlighten:To give (someone) greater knowledge and understanding about a subject or situation
BREAST FEEDING: is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development from breast milk.
American Association of Pediatrics (AAP). (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), e827-841. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552 American Academy of Pediatrics (2013). Ten steps to support parents’ choice to breastfeed their baby. Retrieved from Artieta-Pinedo, I., Paz-Pascual, C., Grandes, G., Bacigalupe, A., Payo, J., & Montoya, I. (2013). Antenatal education and breastfeeding in a cohort of primiparas. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(7), 1607-1617. doi:10.1111/jan.12022 Barnes, M., Cox, J., Doyle, B., & Reed, R. (2010). Evaluation of a practice-development initiative to improve breastfeeding rates. Journal of Perinatal Education, 19(4), 17-23. doi:10.1624/105812410X530893 Bartick, M. (2013). Breastfeeding and health: a review of the evidence. Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 34(4), 317-329. doi:10.1080/1554477X.2013.835651. Brand, E. (2011). Factors related to breastfeeding discontinuation between hospital discharge and 2 weeks postpartum. Journal of Perinatal Education, 20(1), 36-44. Brown, A., Raynor, P., & Lee, M. (2011). Healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ perceptions of factors that influence decisions to breastfeed or formula feed infants: a comparative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(9), 1993-2003. doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2648.2011.05647.x